DAVID WILKENFELD, CPA, CA, canadian tax CONSULTANT

Posts Tagged ‘Law’

The End of the Tax Mulligan

In Canadian Income Tax on June 5, 2017 at 9:00 am

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What happens when a transaction is undertaken that is planned to be tax-free, but due to an unforeseen error in the execution of the plan, it is subsequently discovered that tax is payable? Until recently, if all else failed, one option was to apply to the courts to allow for “rectification”. That is, since the parties to the transaction originally based their actions on the assumption that the plan was tax-effective, ask the courts to allow them to “redo” the deal correctly to restore its original tax-free intent.

Rectification is essentially not a tax concept. It generally applies where parties to a transaction discover that the legal documents that apply do not accurately represent the agreement or intent of the parties at the time. When both parties agree, the courts are inclined to grant relief and allow for a retroactive correction of the legal documents.

Back in 2000, in the case of Juliar, rectification was granted in a tax context to correct what was essentially an error on the part of the tax planners. Simply put, Mr. and Mrs. Juliar transferred shares to a holding company on the assumption that the shares had a high adjusted cost base (ACB) and no rollover provision was made. When it was subsequently discovered that the ACB was indeed low, they applied to the court for rectification, asking to convert a taxable sale to a rollover under section 85 of the Income Tax Act. The court agreed.

Since then, the case of Juliar has been cited often in cases where mistakes in legalities have created undesired tax results. However, in the recent decisions of Jean Coutu and Fairmont, the Supreme Court has overturned Juliar and has put an end to the idea that rectification can be used as a tool to correct errors in tax planning and its execution.

The court in Fairmont stated:

“…rectification is not equity’s version of a mulligan. Courts rectify instruments which do not correctly record agreements. Courts do not “rectify” agreements where their faithful recording in an instrument has led to an undesirable or otherwise unexpected outcome.”

Juliar was expressly overturned on the basis that the decision resulted in “impermissible retroactive tax planning”.

There is a famous decision (Shell Canada) that stands for the idea that a taxpayer is taxed on the way it arranges its affairs, rather than how it could have arranged its affairs. This concept is often referred to when a legal transaction is executed poorly, resulting in unintended tax consequences. These new decisions are in line with this concept, and they take away a weapon of last resort for taxpayers and their advisors.

Sold your House? Make Sure You Report It!

In Canadian Income Tax, Estates and trusts, Non-residents, Personal Tax, Principal Residence on November 18, 2016 at 8:31 pm

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If you have sold your home recently, you should take note of the new reporting rules announced by the CRA regarding the principal residence exemption (“PRE”).

The PRE applies on a pro-rata basis based on the number of years you are claiming the house as your principal residence. Form T2091 is technically required to report and claim the PRE on the sale. If you were claiming the exemption for the full period of ownership, then the gain on the sale is fully exempt from tax. The CRA’s policy until now has been that no reporting was required in such a case.

However, for 2016 and future years, this administrative policy has changed. Form T2091 is still not required if the full exemption is claimed, However, the sale must be reported on Schedule 3 of your tax return for the year. You will need to report a description of the property,  the year of acquisition and  the proceeds of disposition. Failure to report the sale will result in the denial of the PRE. However, you may go back and amend your return to report the sale and claim the exemption, subject to possible penalties of $100 per month to a maximum of $8,000.

For Quebec tax reporting, there has never been any administrative policy regarding a fully exempt sale of a principal residence and form TP-274 continues to be required.

Changes for Trusts

If your principal residence is owned by a trust, new rules will apply to you. I outlined the current rules in a previous post.

Under the new rules, only certain specialized trusts are now eligible to claim the PRE. They are alter-ego trusts, certain spousal or common law partner trusts, certain protective trusts or certain qualified disability trusts.

Starting in 2017, any trust that owns a home and does not fit within any of the categories above, will no longer be eligible for the PRE on the sale of the home. Therefore, if the house is sold before the end of 2016, the PRE can still be claimed.

For 2017 and later years, a home that was owned by a trust that no longer qualifies for the PRE will be allowed to calculate the exemption based on transitional rules that would require a valuation of the property as at the end of 2016. The PRE will be available for the “notional” gain up to the end of 2016, while the future growth in value will be subject to capital gains tax.

Anyone who currently lives in a home owned by a personal trust should consult their tax advisor.

Changes for Non-Residents

New rules will also apply to anyone who was a non-resident at the time they purchased a residential property in Canada. Under the current rules, the pro-rata formula that is used to calculate the PRE allows for an extra year (the plus 1 rule) in calculating the exemption. This generally allows for the fact that in a year where someone sells their home, they may own two properties, both of which should qualify for the exemption.

For a non-resident, the plus 1 rule allowed them to claim a portion of their gain as exempt, even though they never qualified since they were non-residents of Canada. Accordingly, for all sales on or after October 3, 2016, the Plus 1 rule will no longer be available to any taxpayer who was a non-resident of Canada in during the year in which he or she acquired the property. There are no transitional rules to this provision.

What’s Your Tax Issue? Mortgage Refinancing

In Business Expenses, Canadian Income Tax on March 20, 2014 at 3:44 pm

The Tax Issue:

Our rental property is coming up for mortgage renewal.  Can we take equity out of the rental to pay down on our principal residence?  Obviously then, the mortgage on the rental has increased and the interest is being written off.  Can we do this?

The Answer:

Well, since this is the second time this week I’ve been asked the same question, here’s the answer: NO!

Perhaps I should elaborate.

Under Canadian tax law, interest on borrowed money is deductible only under certain specific conditions. For the sake of bandwidth, I will only mention the most important:

The borrowed money must be used for the purpose of earning income from a business or property.

The emphasis on the word used is intentional. The Supreme Court of Canada, many years ago, laid down the rule that it is the use of the borrowed funds that we look to to determine whether this condition is met. To be more specific, it the direct use made of the borrowed funds. This is a technicality that has both helped and hindered the CRA over the years.

In your case, for example, even though you have dutifully paid down the mortgage on the rental property and now own equity in it, refinancing it is simply borrowing money, using your equity in the rental property as collateral. It is not the collateral that is important, but the direct use of the borrowed funds. Therefore, if you use the borrowed money, as you intend, to pay down you personal mortgage, this will be viewed as money borrowed for personal use, and the interest would not be deductible.

One often recommended strategy, taking advantage of the “direct use” rule, would be to use funds that you currently have invested in savings, such as stocks and bonds to pay down your personal mortgage. Then, refinance the rental property, and use the borrowed funds to repurchase your income-earning investments.

Alternatively, if you remortgaged your rental property and purchased a second rental property, or invested in some other income-earning vehicle, then the interest would be deductible.

2013 Tax Issue Tax Organizer is Here!

In Canadian Income Tax, Personal Tax on January 27, 2014 at 9:00 am

Hey everyone, The Tax Issue Tax Organizer 2013 is up and running. This useful tax preparation tool is offered free of charge. Hope you enjoy it, and happy tax season!

CRA – The Anti-Santa

In Canadian Income Tax, Employment Income on December 16, 2013 at 9:00 am

It’s Christmas time, and that’s got the CRA thinking about gifts – taxing them, that is. The recent case of Shaw v. R. is a cautionary tale for anyone who believes that a gift of cash is never taxable to the recipient.

When a taxpayer tries to take advantage of technicalities in the Income Tax Act (“ITA”) to his advantage, it’s called an abuse of the provisions of the ITA. If the taxpayer is successful, the law is usually changed.

When the CRA taxes an amount of income twice, using the provisions of the law to its benefit, well, that’s just the way it is, end of story. In a previous article, we described a case where the CRA unsuccessfully attempted to tax the same amount of income twice. In the case of Shaw, they succeeded.

Mr. Shaw was a long time employee of a private company called Robert Ltd. Mr. Robert, the owner, apparently did very well and sold the assets of the company to CEDA International. At the time of the sale Mr. Robert had substantial amounts owing to him by his company which had been taxed as bonuses in previous years and credited to his shareholder loan account.

After the sale, Mr. Robert wanted to reward his long-time managers. He sent them each an amount of cash from Robert Ltd., representing $10,000 for each year of service, along with a letter thanking them for their loyal service, and assuring them that these amounts were tax-paid gifts that would be charged to his shareholder loan account and therefore not taxed in their hands. Only one condition was attached to the gift, and that was that they remain employees of CEDA International. Mr. Shaw received $140,000.

Section 6(1)(a) of the ITA provides that all “benefits of any kind whatever” are to be included as employment income if they were received “in respect of, in the course of, or by virtue of an office or employment.”

In this case, the court explained that subsection 6(1)(a) is a broadly worded provision and that the amounts received by Mr. Shaw fell into the category of a taxable employee benefit. The amount was calculated based on his number of years of service, and also came with the condition that he remain employed by the purchaser. Accordingly, the payment, regardless of who made it and what form it took, was made by virtue of Mr. Shaw’s employment.

What is unfair in this scenario is, of course, the fact that the amounts paid had been taxed previously; so in assessing Mr. Shaw, the CRA was essentially successful in taxing the same amount of income twice. It didn’t matter that the person who paid the amount was not the employer, nor did it matter that Mr. Shaw was no longer an employee of Robert Ltd. at the time the amount was paid.

This case should be seen as a warning to those who believe they can avoid tax by directing funds to another person on the premise that it is a gift. The CRA will always look to the underlying reason for any payment and apply the provisions of the ITA accordingly, regardless of whether or not it seems fair to the parties involved.

And no, don’t expect the law to be changed to prevent such an unfair result in the future.

Merry Christmas!

Your Honour…The Dog Ate It!!

In Canadian Income Tax on December 2, 2013 at 9:00 am

In the last edition of Fiscalitems, we dealt with the deadlines and procedures involved in making an application for an extension of time to file a Notice of Objection. Although it seems harsh, the Minister of Revenue and the courts show little leeway in allowing late objections without justification, regardless of the amount of time involved. In this issue, we discuss reasons that may be set forth and whether they would result in acceptance of a late objection

Essentially, the law requires the taxpayer to establish that he was unable to act or to instruct another to act in his name, or that he had a bona fide intention to object to the assessment. A successful request for extension must either show that the taxpayer missed the deadline through no fault of his own, or that he never agreed with the assessment and has always intended to object. Both criteria do not have to be met. However, he must show that he filed an objection as soon as circumstances permitted.

What situations will find sympathy from the courts? Here are some examples:

Physical or Mental Disability: Where a taxpayer has had an accident before the assessment was made, and remained incapacitated for some period of time thereafter, or where the taxpayer suffered an illness during the relevant time, there is clear case law and Revenue Canada commentary that would suggest an extension would likely be granted. The application should highlight the unusual nature of the disability and be precise as to the timing involved.

The above situation would fall under the category of “exceptional” or “unusual” circumstance rendering the taxpayer unable to act in accordance with the law. Other such circumstances which have been accepted by the courts include natural disasters, absence from the jurisdiction and inability to communicate in either of the official languages.

Address Problems: Often, the taxpayer argues that he moved and that he never received the assessment due to an address change. Revenue Canada’s only duty is to send an assessment at the last address made available to the department by the taxpayer. If this address is used, the taxpayer has no recourse. It is his responsibility to notify Revenue Canada of an address change immediately.

Ignorance of Time Limit: Often, a taxpayer may argue that he was simply not aware of the statutory time limit involved, and that he acted as soon as he was informed. The case law here is clear: ignorance of the law is not grounds for allowing an extension. All taxpayers are informed on the actual assessment of the time limit for objection. The courts, therefore afford little sympathy to this excuse.

Reliance on a Professional: In many cases taxpayers plead that they relied on their professional advisor. Here the case law is less clear. In one case, a taxpayer returned from a vacation to find a pile of documents, including a tax assessment, on his desk. Without reading them, he simply delivered the pile to his accountant. The court dismissed the application for extension, citing a lack of special circumstances that rendered the taxpayer unable to act. Furthermore, the simple admission of fault by a professional does not automatically absolve the taxpayer of responsibility.

In order to be successful in placing reliance on a professional, the taxpayer must show that he at all times had the intention to object, was aware of his circumstances, and exercised a reasonable degree of diligence in following up his objection with his advisor. This is particularly true where the taxpayer is a businessman or someone who should be “sophisticated” in his income tax affairs.

 

Taxpayers Behaving Badly – Part 2

In Business Expenses, Canadian Income Tax on October 29, 2013 at 3:42 pm

In the case of CIBC v R., the CRA disallowed a deduction for expenses solely on the basis that the taxpayer’s conduct was morally reprehensible. The tax court agreed, and The Federal Court of Appeal was asked to rule on this question.

 The issue in this case was the deductibility of $3 billion in payments made by the CIBC to settle litigation in the U.S. relating to the bankruptcy of Enron Corporation. The CIBC was named as a co-defendant in the case, and the settlement was paid to avoid being jointly and severally liable with Enron for its part in the dissemination of misleading financial information.

 In disallowing the settlement amount as a tax deduction, the CRA argued:

 The misconduct of [CIBC and its affiliates] was so egregious and repulsive that any consequential settlement payments […] cannot be justified as being incurred for the purpose of gaining or producing income from a business or property …. The [CIBC affiliates] knowingly aided and abetted Enron to violate the United States’ federal securities laws and falsify its financial statements. The misconduct of [the CIBC affiliates] in enabling Enron to perpetrate its frauds, known to [CIBC], or the misconduct of [CIBC] itself, was so extreme, and the consequences so dire, that it could not be part of the business of a bank.

 If you know your tax history, you will recognize the CRA’s words as stemming from the comments made by the Supreme Court of Canada in the case of 65302 British Columbia Ltd. v. R. In that case, the taxpayer deducted quota penalties it was charged for the over-production of eggs. The quotas were intentionally exceeded in order to maintain a major customer. The court in that case allowed the deduction, but also stated, with regard to penalties in general that:

 It is conceivable that a breach could be so egregious or repulsive that the fine subsequently imposed could not be justified as being incurred for the purpose of producing income.

 In the end, Finance enacted a provision which generally disallows the deduction of any government penalties. But, the CIBC case did not involve penalties, and there is no specific provision of the Income Tax Act that would disallow a settlement payment based solely on the moral conduct of the taxpayer. Indeed, it is a well known fact that income from all sources, including criminal activities is taxable in Canada.

 So, in the end, the Court of Appeal overturned the decision of the Tax Court and did not disallow the deduction solely on the basis of the taxpayer’s conduct. The case will, however, resurface when the time comes to judge whether the deduction should be allowed on its merits as a business expense.

Taxpayers Behaving Badly – Part 1

In Bankruptcy, Canadian Income Tax, Personal Tax on October 16, 2013 at 7:01 pm

According to The Superintendent of Bankruptcy Canada, “Bankruptcy is a legal process that can provide relief to honest but unfortunate individuals who are unable to pay their debts.”

 The case of Van Eeuwen proves that bankruptcy is not looked upon favourably by the CRA as a way of ignoring your tax responsibilities.

The taxpayer in this case declared bankruptcy at a time when he owed $770,000 in taxes, interest and penalties to the CRA, which made up 85% of his total debts. He had failed to file income tax returns from 1993 to 2004. Subsequent returns were filed late and payments to the CRA did not cover his liabilities. He was fined $101,000 in 2007 for tax evasion which he never paid.

The question to be answered is whether a person can simply ignore his tax responsibilities and expect to clear the slate by subsequently declaring bankruptcy.

The answer is a resounding no.

The court explained that this was a “tax-driven” bankruptcy, which should be treated differently than other bankruptcies:

A bankrupt who does not pay his tax liabilities is not an honest and unfortunate debtor. He is taking advantage of the fact that taxes are not collected by source deductions. This is misconduct. A taxpayer should not be permitted to not pay taxes when he incurs it, and when the liability reaches a large amount go into bankruptcy and piously say that he cannot now pay that large debt and it has caused his bankruptcy. Self-employed income earners cannot be allowed to evade their legal obligation to pay income tax through resort to the [ Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act ].

When a bankruptcy is tax-driven, the integrity of the bankruptcy system requires the courts to take into account not only the debtor’s interest and the creditor’s interest, but also the public interest in ensuring that every taxpayer makes an equitable contribution to the costs of operating the public sector.

This is not a case where a bankrupt incurs a liability expecting to pay it from future income which does not materialize. This is an income driven liability. It was supposed to be paid from the income as it was earned. This is not a case of cannot. It is a case of will not. The money was there to pay the taxes when they were incurred. In cases such as this, the overriding principle must be a message. The message is that tax cheaters are free riders and they are not to be absolved from that.

In the end, the taxpayer was given a discharge, conditional upon the payment of $180,000 to the CRA at a rate of $2,500 per month, which represented 60% of his tax debts, excluding interest and penalties.

And so, while declaring bankruptcy will certainly be a way to clear your debts in most cases, be aware that the courts may not grant an unconditional discharge where your debts are mostly owed to the tax authorities.

 

Why Don’t You Write Me?

In Canadian Income Tax on July 29, 2013 at 6:49 pm

Why don’t you write me I’m out in the jungle, I’m hungry to hear you
Send me a card I am waiting so hard to be near you….Paul Simon

If a person transfers capital property to his or her spouse, Income Tax Act (ITA) subsection 73(1) deems it be transferred at cost, unless the taxpayer elects in his return not to have the rollover apply.

A bad debt on a loan may be considered to be a disposition of that debt for tax purposes under ITA section 50, but only if the taxpayer elects in his tax return to have that provision apply.

On a change of control of a corporation, there is an automatic deemed year end. If that date is within 7 days after the normal year end, then that normal year end can be extended to the date of the change of control, but only if the taxpayer so elects in his return of income under ITA paragraph 249(4)(c).

I could go on and on, but point is, there are many provisions in Canadian tax law that require elections or designations in a taxpayer’s tax return. Some elections require specific prescribed forms to be filed. Others, however, have no form assigned to them. These are usually handled with a letter attached to the return stating that the taxpayer wishes to elect to have a certain provision apply.

So, how does a taxpayer wishing to make an election “in his tax return” do so if he is electronically filing? Currently, the CRA has no way of processing these “letter” elections electronically. However, they do make the statement in various guides and publications that a separate letter should be sent to the Taxation Centre, and even though it is not actually “in the return of income” as is required by law, if the letter arrives before the due date of the return, it will be valid. Furthermore, for corporate filers, the CRA states that an election may be included as part of the notes to the financial statements in the GIFI.

But what if no actual “letter” is produced? What if the taxpayer, in his return of income, simply takes advantage of the election? For example, isn’t it obvious that a taxpayer who makes a claim for a capital loss on the disposition of a bad debt under section 50 in his tax return has made the election in his return? Similarly, if a taxpayer shows a disposition at fair market value on a property transferred to his spouse, isn’t it clear that he has elected out of subsection 73(1)?

Clearly, the CRA’s polcies would suggest that a letter expressly making the election under the specific section of the law should always be prepared. However, for those who have not done so, the recent case of Dhaliwal may offer some support.

In Dhaliwal, the taxpayer failed to send a letter to the CRA and and claimed a loss under section 50 in his tax return. The loss was denied by the CRA, but the Tax Court of Canada had this to say:

The question thus becomes: Must a subsection 50(1) election be made with an express reference to electing to have subsection 50(1) apply, or is it sufficient that the taxpayer elects to report a loss in his or her tax return on a deemed disposition that results because he or she has chosen to avail himself or herself of subsection 50(1)? In an electronic-filing age, this takes on considerable importance as, if an election making a specific reference to subsection 50(1) is required, but no such choice is available in the CRA’s electronic tax returns, this would mean that subsection 50(1) is only available to paper-filers or that the CRA is derelict in its duties in administering the Income Tax Act .

 …upon a proper interpretation of section 50, it is sufficient to communicate the taxpayer’s election by clearly communicating in his or her tax return that he or she wants to be allowed an ABIL in respect of particular debt or shares disposed of in that year. This same analysis applies equally to electronic and paper format tax return. In this case, Mr. Dhaliwal’s 2007 electronic tax return clearly claims an ABIL, using the CRA’s ABIL schedule, in respect of a $156,000 loan made in 2005 and disposed of in 2007. The matter could hardly be clearer.

Perhaps at some point in the future, the CRA will come up with a clearer procedure to make elections and submit written information within an electronically filed income tax return. For now, those who are vigilant should follow their guidelines, but those who are not should follow Dhaliwal.

Love Conquers CRA

In Canadian Income Tax, Personal Tax on February 14, 2013 at 1:38 am

LovewifeLast year, during my travels through Jordan, our tour guide, Ali, who was about to leave us after 2 days in the southern part of the country, mentioned to me that he had a long drive ahead of him. He was not going home. He was making the 3 hour drive back up north to Amman, as he had been doing every evening, to visit his wife in the hospital. Each morning, he would drive back to the south for 3 hours to resume his duties. I found this type of dedication to be remarkable and, with a shy smile, he replied simply, “I love my wife”.

Later, after drying the mist from my eyes, I asked myself whether the cost of such a commute, if made by a Canadian taxpayer, would be considered eligible for the medical expense tax credit. (This paragraph was added as a dramatic segue. Everything else in this post is true. :-))

Eerily, the answer recently came across my desk in the form of the Tax Court case of Jordan v. R. (I kid you not!). Terri Jordan, a resident of Weyburn Saskatchewan was struck by an aneurysm at age 48 and suffered brain damage. She required treatment in a rehabilitation centre in Regina. Her husband Bill commuted 120 kilometres to visit his wife daily, over a period of 102 days during 2010. His auto and meal costs totaled more than $15,000 and he sought to claim these as medical expenses.

The law provides that travel costs qualify as medical expenses if they are reasonable outlays incurred in respect of the patient and, where the patient has been certified by a medical practitioner to be unable to travel without the aid of an attendant, in respect of one person who accompanied the patient, to obtain medical services in a place that is at least 80 kilometres from the locality where the patient dwells and equivalent services cannot be obtained in that locality.

In the Jordan case this provision was interpreted by the CRA as applicable only to the transportation of the patient, and they allowed only the cost of one round-trip.

Judge Woods, however, interpreted the rule as applying not simply to the cost of moving the patient, but to those additional travel and accommodation expenses incurred by an attendant during the period of rehabilitation.

The court noted further that Ms. Jordan was required to receive medical treatment in Regina for a protracted length of time and that Mr. Jordan’s daily presence contributed significantly to her recovery. The appeal was allowed.

Now go hug someone you love, and………..

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